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Comprehensive Bibliography on Direct Instruction

Bibliography Summer2016

This pdf bibliography , compiled by staff of the National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI) provides citations to hundreds of articles and books related to Direct Instruction. It has four major sections. The first section lists the DI programs that have been developed over the years, with separate sections for different subjects. Sections II and III focus on studies of DI’s effectiveness, categorizing the works by the type of research design and curricular focus. Additionally, each of these sections includes subsections for studies with students with disabilities and studies with English as a second language (ESL) students. Section II lists studies that utilized randomized control designs, while Section III lists studies that used quasi-experimental and other designs. Section IV lists a wide variety of other material related to Direct Instruction, such as general articles and books, criticisms and responses, writings on Project Follow Through, teacher training, implementation, and material related to specific subject areas and target audiences. An extensive sub-section (W) lists studies that were instrumental in the development of the programs. Subsections (Y) and (Z) list unpublished dissertations and theses and case-study reports from individual schools and districts.

A substantial proportion of the material listed in the bibliography is abstracted and indexed in NIFDI's searchable database; and the NIFDI staff will, eventually, have all of the entries in this bibliography included in the database.

This compilation of citations will be regularly updated. Because the body of research related to Direct Instruction is so large, some studies may not have been included or may be wrongly classified. Researchers who know of other studies that should be added, including unpublished manuscripts such as dissertations and thesis projects, or who have other suggestions for corrections are asked to send this information to the NIFDI Research Office at

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