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Components of effective reading instruction for reading disabled students: An evaluation of a program combining code and strategy-instruction

Clark, D. S.
This study compared the effect of two reading programs on the reading achievement of 44 elementary students (age 7-10) struggling to learn to read. Students were randomly assigned to either the Phono-Graphix (PG) or Corrective Reading (CR) program, and received instruction over 7.5 weeks during the summer. The Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (WRAT-R) was administered to all students for pre- and posttest measures. Results indicated no significant differences between the two groups on word identification skills. Neither group demonstrated gains between pre- and post-testing. Achievement gains made by students in the PG group were more rapid during the intervention than during the baseline period before the intervention when they received regular classroom instruction. Results from exception-word reading testing indicated that students in the PG group recorded greater gains than students in the CR group. (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Main publication type:
Program Effectiveness
Reading, word identification, Phono-Graphix, Corrective Reading, vocabulary, decoding, blending, Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto
Design type:
Pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment
Fidelity monitored:
Students included:
Elementary students, middle class students, struggling readers, at-risk students, remedial students
Southern Ontario, Canada, elementary school
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