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Scripted and Non-Scripted Reading Instructional Models: Effects on the Phonics and Reading Achievement of First-Grade Struggling Readers

McIntyre, E.; Rightmyer, E. C.; Petrosko, J.P.
This study compared the effect of Reading Mastery and four “non-scripted” instructional models (Breakthrough to Literacy, Early Success, Four Blocks, and Together We Can) on the reading achievement of at risk first grade students. First grade teachers in 12 schools and 37 classrooms, nominated “struggling” readers to participate in the study. Fifty six students were instructed with Reading Mastery and 52 students received instruction with one of the “non-scripted” instructional models, with two to five students in each class. Clay’s Hearing Sounds in Words test was used to measure gains from fall to spring of first grade and the Flynt Cooper Informal Reading Inventory was used to measure gains from the beginning of first grade to the end of second grade and the beginning of second grade to the end of third grade. Pretesting occurred in September and post-testing in May. Results from the Clay’s Hearing Sounds in Words test indicated that students in the Reading Mastery group recorded greater phonics scores, but there was no significant difference between their scores and those of students in the “non-scripted” group. Results from the Flynt-Cooter Reading Inventory indicated no significant difference on mean reading scores after two years between students instructed with Reading Mastery and the “non-scripted” models. The authors indicate that the varying levels of implementation of fidelity across all models may have been a factor in why no significant differences in achievement emerged. (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Main publication type:
Program Effectiveness
Reading Mastery; reading comprehension; reading fluency; phonics; Breakthrough to Literacy; Early Success; Four Blocks; Together We Can; Clay'; s Hearing Sounds in Words; Flynt Cooper Informal Reading Inventory
Reading & Writing Quarterly
Design type:
Pretest-posttest, gain scores
Fidelity monitored:
Students included:
Elementary students, struggling readers, at risk students
Elementary school
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