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Intensifying Reading Instruction for Students Within a Three-Tier Model: Standard-Protocol and Problem Solving Approaches within a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) System

Marchand-Martella, N.; Ruby, S. F.; Martella, R.
This study examined the efficiency and effectiveness of a three tier intervention model and the use of a Response-to-Intervention system. 371 students in grades K to 3 from one elementary school participated in this one-year study. All students received reading instruction with the Direct Instruction program Reading Mastery Plus, and some third grade students receiving supplemental instruction with Corrective Reading. The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) was administered to K-2 students for pre- and posttest measures, and the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) was administered to the third grade students for their pre- and posttest measures. Results indicated that all students demonstrated pretest to posttest improvements of more than half of a standard deviation on all subtests and measures. K-2 students demonstrated significant improvements on all DIBELS subtests. Effect sizes ranged from .50 (nonsense word fluency with typically achieving second grade students) to 3.96 (initial sound fluency with kindergarten students in special education). Statistically significant results were reported for third grade students for normal curve equivalents scores on the SRI. On the SRI, effect size improvements for third grade students ranged from .72 (NCEs for all students combined) to 3.37 (Lexile scores for Title I/LAP students). (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Main publication type:
Program Effectiveness
Reading Mastery Plus; Corrective Reading; Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills; DIBELS; Scholastic Reading Inventory; Response-to-Intervention system
Teaching Exceptional Children Plus
Design type:
Pretest posttest, gain scores
Fidelity monitored:
Students included:
Kindergarten students, elementary students, general education students, Title I students, special education students, students in Learning Assistance Program (LAP)
Pacific northwest, Washington state, elementary school
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