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Fostering the Development of Reading Skill Through Supplemental Instruction: Results for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Students

Gunn, B.; Smolkowski, K.; Biglan, A.; Black, C.; Blair, J.
This study examined the effect of supplemental instruction on the reading achievement of a diverse sample of students at-risk for reading difficulty in comparison to a similar group of students who received no supplemental instruction. Two hundred ninety-nine students in kindergarten to third grade participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a 2-year supplemental instruction program or a no-treatment control group. For supplemental instruction, the Direct Instruction programs Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading were used for 30 minutes each day over 2 years. Student reading ability was measured in the fall prior to the beginning of the intervention and again in the spring of years 1, 2, 3, and 4. Students were administered the Letter-Word Identification, Word Attack, Passage Comprehension, Reading Vocabulary, and Word Identification subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of achievement (WJ-RACH) and a measure of oral reading fluency to measure their grade level reading ability. Additionally, the intervention program consisted of parent training and social behavioral interventions. Results indicated that students who completed the 2-year intervention performed significantly better than their matched controls on entry-level reading skills, oral reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Two years after the completion of the program, students continued to demonstrate significantly greater growth on oral reading fluency in comparison to their peers in the control group. Additionally, Hispanic students showed as much improvement or more from the supplemental reading instruction in English than non-Hispanic students. (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Main publication type:
Program Effectiveness
English Language Learner; Corrective Reading; Reading Mastery; reading; beginning reading; word identification; word attack; oral reading fluency; vocabulary; reading comprehension; supplemental instruction; Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement; Englsh Lngge Lrnrs
Journal of Special Education
Design type:
Pretest Posttest Control Group with Random Assignment Design and Longitudinal Study
Fidelity monitored:
Students included:
Kindergarten students, elementary students, Hispanic students, at-risk students, students with limited English proficiency, English Language Learner (ELL) students, students with behavior problems
4 Oregon communities, 3 with large Mexican American populations, elementary school
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