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Phonic versus whole-word correction procedures following phonic instruction

Carnine, D.
This study examined two approaches for correcting oral reading errors of beginning readers. The whole word and phonic approaches were compared to determine if they differentially affected student decoding performance. Nine non-handicapped children from middle income backgrounds with no prior training in any formal reading program were randomly selected from a population of four- and five-year olds who were enrolled at a local preschool. The children were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and were given identical pre-training in sound identification and blending skills. Students were taught 85 phonetically regular words constructed from nine letters with four words presented per instructional session. Each group was instructed separately for 10-15 minutes a day. Performance on training and transfer words by the three groups of students was measured using a multiple baseline design involving the two different correction procedures. Both correction procedures were introduced to all three experimental groups in the same order, but at different stages of the study. Results indicated that the whole-word correction did not effectively promote word recognition by the children during training or transfer tests. After phonic correction was used, performance improved on both training and transfer tests. The author concluded that whole-word corrections have two related negative consequences: students are required to memorize more words and the students are not reminded of the sound-it-out decoding strategy that can be applied to unfamiliar words. The sound-it-out corrections produce steady improvement because practice helps students develop skills to recognize the components of words and learn new words. Additionally, the author notes that the results suggest if students are taught a phonics approach for decoding, phonic corrections should be used. Furthermore, the correction procedure should be consistent with the initial teaching procedures. (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Main publication type:
Program Effectiveness
Reading, phonics, whole word, blending
Education and Treatment of Children
Design type:
Post-test only control group design
Fidelity monitored:
Students included:
Preschool students
Other tags:
Reading, phonics, whole word, blending
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