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A Token Reinforcement Program in a Public School: A Replication and Systematic Analysis

O', ; Leary, K.; Becker, W.; Evans, M.; Saudargas, R.
This article examines a study on the behavior modification of seven second grade students who exhibited disruptive behavior in class. The whole class consisted of 21 students, but only seven were observed daily for changes in behavior. The teacher used a series of behavior modification techniques with her students. The phases were Classroom Rules, Educational Structure, Praising Appropriate Behavior and Ignoring Disruptive Behavior, Tokens and Back-up Reinforcement, Praising Appropriate Behavior Ignoring Disruptive Behavior (Withdrawal), Tokens and Back-up Reinforcement, and Follow-up. Each phase was -introduced successively after a base level of disruptive behavior was recorded. The introduction of the Token Reinforcement Program reduced the frequency of disruptive behavior. The Withdrawal of the Token Reinforcement Program led to more instances of disruptive behavior. Disruptive behavior decreased again with the reintroduction of the Token Reinforcement Program. Additionally results indicated the Token Program may have led to increased academic achievement and class attendance. (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Main publication type:
Implementation Support
Disruptive behavior; rules; educational structure; appropriate behavior; token reinforcement program; teacher praise; California Achievement Test
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Design type:
Single subject
Fidelity monitored:
Students included:
Second grade students, students with disruptive behavior
Other tags:
Disruptive behavior, Rules, Educational Structure, and Praising Appropriate Behavior while Ignoring Disruptive Behavior, Token Reinforcement Program, Teacher Praise, California Achievement Test
Elementary school
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