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Direct or indirect instruction?: An evaluation of three types of intervention programme for assisting students with specific reading difficulties

Somerville, D.; Leach, D.
This study compared the effects of three intervention programs: a psycho-motor program, which included a wide variety of physical exercises carried out at school and home, a self-esteem program, which incorporated activities designed to encourage self-expression and establish feelings of trust and confidence among students, and a Direct Instruction program, wherein parents were taught to use Corrective Reading to teach decoding skills to their children. 40 students with reading difficulties participated in the study; 10 students were randomly assigned to each program, and the remaining students served as waiting-list controls. Self-esteem, psycho-motor skills, and reading performance were measured before and after intervention. Results indicate that students in the Direct Instruction group made significantly greater gains on reading measures than students in the two other intervention groups and the control group; additionally, none of the programs resulted in significant increases on measures of psycho-motor skills or self-esteem. (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Main publication type:
Program Effectiveness
Corrective Reading; reading; self-esteem; psycho-motor skills
Educational Research
Design type:
Randomized Experiment
Fidelity monitored:
Students included:
Remedial Students, At-risk Students
Other tags:
Corrective Reading, reading, self-esteem, psycho-motor skills
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